It is an old French breed. The ancestor of this dog is the Persian shepherd dog brought by the Romans to Gaul, in the 13th century. The breed was improved trough the crossbreeding of local dogs with the Scottish Deerhound brought from England. At first it was named "field dog" and only in the year 1863 did it get the name "Beauceron" at the first canine show in Paris. It is related to the Briard, both breeds guarding French flocks. In the 19th century the short hair variety was named Beauceron and the long hair one kept the name of Briard. We find it mostly in France and recently in other areas in Europe and North America.
It is a large-sized, sturdy, rustic, strong dog, with a well-built and brawny body, with an ample chest. The head is long, proportionate to the body, with harmonious lines, the eyes slightly egg-shaped, dark, gentle and intelligent and a black nose. The ears are short, placed high and naturally drooping or cropped to stay erect. The long tail forms a small hook at the tip. The fur is thick, double-layered with an outer layer made of short, thick, rough hair, close to the body. It's shorter on the head. It is black with brown patches and it's called bicoloured or "bas rouge" and the variety with grey in the chromatic of the fur, being called harlequin. The breed standard requires double spurs on each front leg.
It is an intelligent, very obedient, disciplined, very active and brave dog, but nervous and rather aggressive. It is very attached and faithful to its owner and it loves children. It has a great resistance which allows it to run over 80 kilometers per day without getting tired.
The fur doesn't require too much care. The brushing is done more often only during the shedding period.
It needs much exercise, activity, an owner with experience in raising dogs and who can put time in long walks and training.
They are pretty easy to train because they are eager to please their master, they are hardworking and resistant. From an early age it must be socialized with different people and animals and to have a strong relationshionship with its master. Otherwise it can become aggressive and angry. It needs socialization and an adequate training to control its aggressive side. (It can bite without any warning.)
With its fearless, daring behavior, it is a very good watchdog for herds and for the house. It is a good security dog. It is also used as a utility dog by the police and the army. During both world wars it was used to carry munition belts to the troops at the front.