It is an old German breed by name and received the nickname "German sausage" from the English people. Regarding its origin and age are several theories. One of them, based on the paintings from the Egyptian bas-reliefs, says that this breed is over 4000 years old and it was used as a watchdog. On the funerary statue of a Pharaoh was found the name "daschund". However this theory is not supported because at the beginning of our era, this breed disappeared from the Nile Valley and no traces were found. The second theory says that the breed comes from the crossbreeding the Basset with the Pinscher dogs, from which resulted todays short-haired Dachshund from. Later, through several crossbreedings between this Dachshund and other breeds resulted the other varieties of Dachshund. There are three varieties of size: standard, dwarf and Kaninchen or little bunny and three varieties of fur: short, straight (have smooth), long and wiry.
The short-haired Dachshund is the most known from all breeds of Dachshund. It is a small sized dog, short, small and sturdy feet, a very long body, prominent chest with a pit on each side (as a bow of a boat). The head is oblonged, conical, the snout is a bit cambered. The eyes are medium sized, almond-shaped, egg-shaped and dark. The ears are long, round ended, flat, very mobile, caught up and hung it beside his head. The tail is long, thin, caught up and hanging down beside the head. The fur is short, straight, smooth, shiny and soft. It can be reddish-brown, black and more rarely are chocolate colour or tigerish.
It is an intelligent, lively, skilful, submissive, very brave dog, with a special olfactory sense, it is active, and persevering, curious and sometimes dominant. The family, in the middle of which it lives, it's on first place on its life, so attached is it of it. It is quite reserved with strangers. It must be socialized since an early age with children and with other dogs or other animals in the house otherwise, when it will grow up, its hunter instincts, will make it to play with another animal (especially the cat) in a hunt. Some specimens may have an attitude too brave, imprudence towards other bigger dogs.
The fur of this dog must be trimmed 2-3 times a year. The claws should be cut very short. Most of these dogs have the tendency to eat more, becoming obese. Ideal for them is to have 6,5-7 kg but they can arrive to 14 kg. An obese dog is a sick dog. Because of the very long spine they can have problems at the disks level between vertebras. They should not be allowed to climb stairs, to jump on a chair or to become obese. It is recommend using a mini harness instead of a dog-collar to protect the spine.
It is an adaptable dog to the offered living conditions - open air or flat. The Dwarf variety is ideal for an apartment, on condition that to have the possibility to take exercises daily. It needs socialization and training.
The training of this dog must be made by a person with experience and preferably within a training session because it is a dog which has tenfencies of domination and an independent thinking. But with patience, with a positive, firm, consequent attitude, withoit being too severe (it suffers if it is punished) good result can be obtained and it learns a lot, even if it will not listen blindly always the commands. It needs exercise, walks, to run (the man should take care, because it can run if appears something which incites its hunter instincts) to keep its shapes.
It is an excellent hunter of small burrowing animals and even bigger animals (foxes, boars). It has a great perseverance in chaseing the prey and being able to resist 48 hours for its search. It is a good watchdog for the house and a devoted companion. It is used also in police to smell and to follow.